The House of God by Samuel ShemRead about the other entries on the list.
As a medical student, I was given this book by a well-meaning (or possibly satanically mischievous) relative who happened to be a nurse. My God! It was like being brought to the wall of fire that is TRUTH and having one’s eyes held open by a pair of red hot toothpicks. Extreme situations bring out the extremes of human foibles, and few situations are more extreme than the first years of being a doctor. Set in a lightly disguised Boston hospital of high repute, Shem’s novel dives deep into the agony of absurdity.
Also see Joel Cunningham's seven of the sharpest modern satires, ten satirical novels that could teach you to survive the future, and Adam Thorpe's top ten satires.